How serious is academic fraud in our universities?

Media Statement by Dr. Ong Kian Ming, MP for Serdang, on the 25th of July, 2016

How serious is academic fraud in our universities?

More than a month ago, on the 11th of June, 2016, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya was alerted of alleged academic misconduct on the part of some faculty members who were authors / co-authors in a number of scientific publications. To its credit, the University quickly convened an investigation and found that ‘there were duplication and / or manipulation of almost all the figures (images and graphs) within the original Scientific Reports paper and across three other publications authored by the group of researchers” and called for the authors to retract all four articles.[1] The articles were subsequently retracted by the journals in question.[2]

The university’s quick and decisive action sends a strong signal that research fraud is not tolerated in our national research universities and it should be applauded accordingly. But larger questions regarding academic integrity and academic fraud remain unanswered.

For example, this specific case of academic fraud was discovered not by an internal probe within the university but because of scrutiny by academics and researchers from outside the country. The allegations which were first highlighted on twitter was then picked up by blogs such as Microbiome Digest, For Better Science and Science. Elisabeth Bik, a Stanford researcher who recently co-authored a paper titled “The Prevalence of Inappropriate Image Duplication in Biomedical Research Publications”, suggested on Microbiome Digest that not only were the images duplicated within each paper, but that the figures look very similar across papers (despite the papers being about different cancer cells and different compounds!). Without such scrutiny, would this academic fraud have been discovered?

In addition, were the authors in all four papers (other than Nina Samie who was the lead author in all of the papers) aware that the same study was replicated thrice and submitted to four different journals under different titles? Was there academic fraud not just in terms of the content published but also in the manner in which the different co-authors may have been duped or worse yet, were complicit partners in this scandal?

What is disconcerting is that this specific case may be the tip of the iceberg of what is poor academic integrity and honesty in our higher education system. While I believe that a large majority of the 3823 papers which were published by UM students and staff in indexed journals have been done with academic integrity and honesty,[3] it only takes a few bad apples to spoil the barrel.

I have heard of instances of junior faculty and researchers being forced to include the names of their supervisors on academic papers even though their supervisors did not contribute any significant intellectual input or work. Some supervisors even insist of being named as first author which implies that he or she took the leading role and did much of the work for the publication in question. In some worse cases of academic fraud, some senior academics even refuse to allow the junior faculty or researcher to put their name in the publication thus claiming all the intellectual credit for himself or herself.

It is not sufficient for UM to merely issue a press statement on this specific instance of academic fraud. As the oldest and arguably most prestigious academic institution in Malaysia, it should take a leading role when it comes to upholding standards of academic integrity and intellectual honesty. As such, I call upon the University of Malaya to publish the full proceedings of its internal investigation into this matter and to recommend changes to existing guidelines so these kinds of cases do not happen again. In addition, UM should also disclose the exact nature of the punishment meted out to the researchers in question so as to send a strong signal to other faculty of the serious consequences of academic fraud.

In addition, I call upon the Minister of Higher Education, Idris Jusoh, to conduct a comprehensive review of the High Impact Research (HIR) initiative between his Ministry and the University of Malaya. The authors of three of the papers received two research grants from this initiative which is a collaboration between the Ministry of Education and the University of Malaya to fund projects that will lead to publications in Tier 1 ISI/Web of Science journals[4]. According to the UM 2014 annual report, the Ministry of Education (MoE) has injected RM590 million into the programme, with additional funding from UM, to fund research projects up till 2016. Given the large amount of funds dedicated to this initiative and that the fact that two of its research projects were found to be academically fraudulent, it is in the public interest for the funding for all the projects under this initiative to be publicly disclosed and reviewed. If Idris Jusoh is serious about ensuring that our higher education system is ‘Soaring Upwards’, he should take this matter seriously and not try to cover things up.

Dr. Ong Kian Ming
Member of Parliament for Serdang


[2] Samie N., Haerian B.S., Muniandy S., Marlina A., Kanthimathi M.S., Abdullah N.B., Ahmadian G. and Aziddin R.E.R. (2016) Mechanism of Action of the Novel Nickel(II) Complex in Simultaneous Reactivation of the Apoptotic Signaling Networks Against Human Colon Cancer Cells. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 6:313. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00313 (Received: 19/11/15 | Accepted: 18/12/15 | Published: 28/1/16 | Retracted: 29/6/16 )

Samie N., Muniandy S., Kanthimathi M., Haerian B.S. (2016) Mechanism of action of novel piperazine containing a toxicant against human liver cancer cells. PeerJ, 4:e1588. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1588 (Received: 17/11/15 | Accepted: 21/12/15 | Published: 17/3/16 Retracted: 26/6/16)

Samie N., Muniandy S., Kanthimathi M.S., Haerian, B.S., Azudin, R.E.R. (2016) Novel piperazine core compound induces death in human liver cancer cells: possible pharmacological properties. Scientific Reports, 6:24172. doi: 10.1038/srep24172 (Received: 1/10/15 | Accepted 23/3/16 | Published: 13/4/16 | Retracted: 22/6/16)

Samie N., Kanthimathi M.S., Muniandy S., Marlina, A., Mohamed Z., Abdullah, N. Revamp of the apoptotic signalling pathways and cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells induced by novel copper based compound and its molecular mechanisms. Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery. (Withdrawn before publishing – can no longer be found online)

[3], p. 28


8 Replies to “How serious is academic fraud in our universities?”

  1. Prof. Sreeramanan Subramaniam

    Very serious figure manipulation.

    Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2014) 172:1131–1145
    Cryopreservation of Brassidium Shooting Star Orchid Using the PVS3 Method Supported with Preliminary Histological Analysis
    Safiah Ahmad Mubbarakh, Safrina Rahmah, Zuraida Abdul Rahman, Nazrin Nadirah Mohd Sah, Sreeramanan Subramaniam
    School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia
    Biotechnology Research Centre, MARDI Headquarters, MARDI HQ, Persiaran MARDI-UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
    DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0597-0

  2. The demand for RCA in the above fiasco is highly justified…How to insist on QUALITY CULTURE if we do not practise essential part of a QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM…INCIDENT REPORTING…ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS…CORRECTIVE N PREVENTIVE ACTIONS…

  3. Other than great educators and principal investigators or supervisors. There are instances also considered unethical which including but not limited to research assistants (RAs)/students instead of given guidance by principal investigator left to do the research project all by themselves (so as to be recognised as “independent” but who is the real principal investigator?) and pressurised to produce journal articles, asked to “assist with administrative duties far beyond the scope of the research project which is what the research grant for apart from paying tiny allowance for RAs and etc, “help” as personal assistants (PAs), and so on. If RAs/postgraduate students can really work as RAs/postgraduate students or work on the research project assigned, given proper guidance, allow to pick up writing skills, given readily assess to plagiarism check tool themselves, academic fraud as such could at least be minimised

  4. Prof. Fazlul Hoque Sarkar, who is listed as being a faculty member of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Malaysia, was found guilty, in August, 2016, of academic misconduct, by Wayne State University: “The Investigation Committee finds that the evidence shows that Dr. Sarkar engaged in and permitted (and tacitly encouraged) intentional and knowing fabrication, falsification, and/or plagiarism of data, and its publication in journals, and its use to support his federal grant applications.” Why then, does the University of Malaysia offer him special protection?

  5. The University of Malaya (Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering) is once again involved in academic scandal. This time, it involves fake peer reviews and fake authors in Elsevier journals, leading to 9 retractions.

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